How Many Valence Electrons are in Rubidium

How Many Valence Electrons are in Rubidium

You need to find how many valence electrons are in Rubidium? Then, let’s find it out! Rubidium is an element with the symbol “Rb” and atomic number 37. Rubidium is a very soft, silvery-white metal in the alkali metal group. Rubidium metal shares similarities with potassium metal and cesium metal in terms of physical appearance, softness and conductivity. Rubidium cannot be stored under atmospheric oxygen because a highly exothermic reaction will occur and sometimes even cause the metal to ignite.

We will find an answer for “How Many Valence Electrons are in Rubidium” in this article together. We hope that you’ll know much more about valence electrons of rubidium after this article. Let’s start to find out rubidium valence electrons.

How many protons, neutrons and electrons does rubidium have?

Protons, neutrons and electrons of a certain atom can be found easily. We need to know atomic mass and atomic number of the atom to find number of protons, neutrons and electrons. Atomic number of Rubidium is 37. Atomic mass of Rubidium is 85. Proton number is equal to atomic number. Neutron can be found substracting proton number from atomic mass. So, neutron number is equal to 85-37 = 48. Number of electrons is equal to proton number. Therefore, Rubidium has 37 protons, 48 neutrons and 37 electrons.

How many valence electrons does rubidium(Rb) have?

Rubidium is an element which is placed in group 1 of periodic table. It is an alkali metal. Valence electrons can be found by summing up the electrons in the last orbit or the last shell. Total number of electrons present in the last shell of the electron configuration of rubidium is called valence electrons for rubidium.

Nucleus-valence-electron
Nucleus and valence electrons

When an atom forms a bond with another atom, valence electrons become very important. Valence electrons determine the properties of atoms. Rubidium is the thirty-seventh element in the periodic table. It means that Rubidium atom has 37 protons and 37 electrons.

We can find how many valence electrons present in the last shell of Rubidium by writing electron configuration of Rubidium. The electrons in the last shell is equal to rubidium valence electrons. Herewith, Rubidium(Rb) has 1 valence electron.

What are the valence electrons of rubidium(Rb)?

There are 37 electrons present in the Rubidium atom which means that rubidium atom has 37 protons in total. To find out the valence electrons of rubidium, first we need to write the electron configuration of rubidium. Because rubidium valence electrons are present in the last shell of the electron configuration of rubidium. In conclusion, valence electrons of rubidium(Rb) is one.

How do you calculate the number of valence electrons in a rubidium atom?

There is an easy way to determine the number of valence electrons but you need to follow 3 steps to calculate it. If you want to cook something, you need a recipe first. So, if you want to find the valence electrons in a rubidium atom, you need electron configuration of rubidium first.

If you have the full electron configuration, it is very easy to find the valence electrons for any atom. Here, we will find the electron configuration for rubidium first and then we will go through the other steps.

Taking advantage of Rutherford’s model, Bohr proposed a new model of the atom in 1913. In this model, Bohr used the spectrum lines of the hydrogen atom and Planck’s quantum theory. Thus, he calculated the previously stated but unexplained electron motions—electron velocity, momentum, and orbits.

Electrons move circularly at possible energy levels only in stable orbits at a certain distance from the nucleus. This is the stable constant energy state and the atom in the steady state does not emit light (radiation). But when the energy level of the electron changes (from n=1 to n=2), it emits as much light as the level change.

In conclusion, Bohr said that there are orbits or shells in atoms which can be described by n. ( n = 1,2 3 4 …)

The first shell is called K. Second shell is called L and third shell is called M. Fourth shell is called N. Electron holding capacity of shells can be calculated with the formula of 2n2.

Herewith:

  • n = 1 for the first shell which is K shell.
    K shell has an electron capacity of 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.
  • n = 2 for the second shell which is L shell.
    L shell has an electron capacity of 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.
  • n=3 for the third shell which is M shell.
    M shell has an electron capacity of 2n2 = 2 × 3= 18 electrons.
  • n=4 for the fourth shell which is N shell.
    N shell has an electron holding capacity of 2n2 = 2 × 42 = 32 electrons.

Aufbau method is evolved Bohr model by adding sub-orbits. Sub-orbits can be seen in the table below.

Principal+Energy+Level+Number+of+Sublevels+Type+of+Sublevel
Summary of Principal Energy Levels, Sublevels, and Orbitals. Principal Energy Level. Number of Sublevels. Type of Sublevel. n= s (1 orbital) n= s (1 orbital), 2p (3 orbitals) n= s (1 orbital), 3p (3 orbitals) 3d (5 orbitals) n= s (1 orbital), 4p (3 orbitals) 4d (5 orbitals) 4f (7 orbitals)

Now we can write the electron configuration easily since we know Bohr model and sub-orbits.

First Step : Calculate the number of electrons in rubidium(Rb)

First thing we need to do is to find out the number of electrons in a rubidium atom. How can we find number of electrons? Yes, that’s right, the number of electrons are equal to the number of protons in a certain atom. But how can we find the number of protons? All you need is the atomic number of Rubidium. Let’s check periodic table to find atomic number of Rubidium.

rubidium-chemical-element-periodic-table
Atomic number of rubidium on periodic table

By looking at periodic table, you can easily find out the atomic number of elements. We need the atomic number of rubidium so we need to find where is rubidium in the periodic table. Rubidium is a group 1 element. You can find it under K and left side of Ca in the periodic table. The atomic number is equal to the protons. Also, protons are equal to the total number of electrons.

In conclusion, electron number is equal to atomic number for Rb atom. As we can see in the periodic table, Rubidium’s atomic number is 37 which means that the total number of electrons for Rubidium atom is 37.

Second Step : Write the electron configuration for rubidium

Electron configuration is very important to find valence electrons. Electron configuration shows how the electrons of rubidium is placed in the atom. In the first step, we found that rubidium atom has thirty-seven electrons. According to the Bohr model, we can arrange 37 electrons to write the electron configuration. First orbit should have two electrons. The second orbit of Rb should have eight electrons. The third orbit of Rb should have eighteen electrons. The fourth orbit of Rb should have eight electrons and the last shell of Rb which is fifth orbit should have one electron. Total number of electrons for each orbit of rubidium is respectively 2, 8, 18, 8, 1. By using sub-orbits, we can write the electron configuration for rubidium as 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s1.

Third Step : Find the last shell and calculate valence electrons

In the second step, we wrote electron configuration. In the third step, we need to find which shell is the valence shell. Because last shell of the electron configuration is valence shell and the electrons in a valence shell is equal to valence electrons. According to the electron configuration of rubidium, the last shell is 5s1 and it has one electron. In conclusion, the valence electrons in rubidium are one.

What is the valency of rubidium(Rb)?

Valency is the name of the ability to form a bond with another atom to create a molecule. Valency of the atom is equal to the total number of unpaired electrons. Unpaired electrons are present in the last shell.

Electron configuration for Rb atom is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s1. According to the electron configuration of rubidium, there is only one unpaired electron in the last orbit which is 5s1. In conclusion, the valency of Rb atom is one.

How many valence electrons does rubidium ion(Rb+) have?

According to the electron configuration that we wrote before, there is only one electron in the last shell of Rb atom. It means that valency of Rb atom is one. If an atom has 1 or 2 or 3 valence electrons, it donates the valence electrons to form a bond with another atom.

Cation is the name of the elements that wants to donate electrons to form a bond with another atom. Rubidium is a cation because Rubidium wants to donate its valence electron to form a bond.

Rb – e → Rb+

Electron configuration for rubidium ion(Rb+) is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6. As we know, the total number of electrons in the last shell equal to the valence electrons. The last shell of Rb ion has 8 electrons 4s2 4p6. According to the electron configuration of Rubidium ion, the valence electrons of rubidium ion are eight.

Check out “Beryllium Number of Valence Electrons” to learn about Beryllium.

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