CO32- is known as carbonate ion. ChemHelps will try to teach you how to draw CO32- Lewis Structure in this article. There are 4 steps we need to check before drawing lewis structure of CO32-:
- First of all, we need to calculate the valence electrons of carbonate ion. CO32- ion has 24 valence electrons.
- Then we need to find total electron pairs of CO32-.
- Center atom should be determined to draw carbonate ion lewis structure.
- And lastly, we need to find lone pairs and charges of CO32- molecule.
Let’s start to find out CO32- Lewis Structure, shall we?
How to Draw CO32- Lewis Structure
Let’s find valence electrons of CO32- first.
1 – Valence electrons in CO32-
CO32- molecule has 3 Oxygen atoms and 1 Carbon atom. C is the symbol of Carbon and O is the symbol of Oxygen. C has 4 valence electrons while O has 6 valence electrons. Let’s multiply these with atoms, 4*1 + 6*3 = 22 valence electrons. Carbonate ion has also (-2) formal charge. Which means that we need to add 2 more valence electrons. So, valence electrons in CO32- is 24.
Carbon’s hybridization in CO32- (carbonate ion) is sp2 type.
2 – Total electron pairs of CO32-
Divide total valence electrons by two to find the total electron pairs of CO32-. 24/2 = 12 electron pairs in CO32-.
3 – Center atom of CO32-
Carbon is the center atom of CO32-.
4 – Lone pairs and charges of CO32-
CO32- has a complex structure. Don’t forget that when total valence electrons are multiple of 8 and there are no hydrogen atom in the molecule, the center atom doesn’t contain any lone pairs.
Carbon should have 8 electrons which means that carbon should form 4 bonds. There are 3 oxygen atoms and it shows us that carbon should form a double bond with one of the oxygen atoms. Single bonded oxygen atoms should have (-1) formal charge.
The formal charge of carbonate ion is -2.
Lewis Structure for CO32-
CO32- is a complex molecule. Since CO32- has 24 valence electrons, center atom cannot have any lone pairs on itself. And carbon should form 4 bonds with 3 oxygen atoms. So carbon needs to form a double bond with an oxygen atom. Each of the remaining oxygen atoms should have 3 lone pairs and -1 charge on themselves. That’s how to draw CO32- Lewis.
Let’s find carbonate ion lewis structure now:
What we need first is to find valence electrons in carbonate ion to draw CO32- Lewis Dot Structure.
CO32- has 1 C atom and 3 O atoms. Carbon has 4 valence electrons while O has 6 valence electron. But CO32- has -2 formal charge which means that we should add +2 electrons to our calculation. And it’s that easy to calculate total valence electrons.
4*1 + 6*3 + 2 = 24 valence electrons in CO32-.
Total electron pairs in CO32-:
If we divide total valence electrons in CO32- by 2, the result would be total electron pairs in CO32-. So, if we divide 24 by 2, it would be 12. There are 12 electron pairs in CO32-.
Center atom of CO32- is C atom.
Lone pairs and charges:
Formal charge of CO32- is -2. Carbon atom has no lone pairs and it forms double bond with 1 oxygen atom. Each of the other 2 oxygen atoms has -1 charge. Now we can draw CO32- Lewis Dot Structure:
Lewis Structure of CO32-
Lewis Structure of CO32- is a complex Lewis. It’s not easy to draw if you are not familiar with the topic. You should be checking Acetic Acid Lewis Structure or CO2 Lewis Structure first to get familiar with Lewis Structures before you try to draw Lewis Structure of carbonate ion .
Carbonate Ion Lewis Structure
Carbonate ion is one of the most complicated Lewis Structures. Let’s start with our 4-step Lewis drawing solution. It’s very easy when you know the necessary steps to draw carbonate lewis structure. First step is to calculate total valence electrons in carbonate. And then we calculate total electron pairs. After that, we find which atom is the center atom of our structure. Finally, we check the formal check and place lone pairs on atoms. And it’s that easy to draw a Lewis.
Calculating valence electrons in carbonate ion
How many valence electrons does carbonate ion has? Carbonate is formed by 1 carbon atom and 3 oxygen atoms. And its formal charge is -2. So, in total carbonate has 24 valence electrons.
Carbon has 4 valence electrons * 1 atoms = 4 valence electrons from Carbon atom
Oxygen has 6 valence electron * 3 atoms = 18 valence electrons from Oxygen atoms
4 + 18 = 22
We need to add +2 electrons to our calculation because carbonate ion’s formal charge is -2.
In total 4 + 18 + 2 = 24 valence electrons
There are 24 valence electrons in carbonate ion. Or we can say that CO32- has 24 valence electrons.
Calculating total electron pairs in carbonate ion
To find the total electron pairs in carbonate, all we need to do is to divide total valence electrons by 2. Which means that there are 12 electron pairs in carbonate ion. Because dividing 24 by 2 is equal to 12.
24/2 = 12 electron pairs in Carbonate.
CO32- or carbonate ion has 12 electron pairs in total.
Determining center atom of carbonate
Carbon is the center atom of carbonate lewis structure.
Calculating lone pairs and charges of carbonate ion
Formal charge of carbonate ion is -2.
Let’s draw lewis structure of carbonate ion to see lone pairs and charges.
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